Crystallization is one of the important chemical solid-liquid separation techniques. In this process mass transfer of the solute, from a homogenous single phase solution, produces a pure solid crystalline phase.
Fermentation works on the fact that micro-organisms change the chemical composition of bio-degradable materials into chemical substances that can be used for various purposes. In a typical fermenter, the micro-organisms are deployed and supplied with necessary food and nutrients that helps them to multiply and boost the fermentation process.
Polymerization is a liquid-liquid mixing process that allows reaction between monomer molecules to create polymer chains. Due to high viscosity and high exothermic heat of reaction of a typical polymerization system, the polymerization reactor needs to be design, considering heat transfer and the fluid flow.